Aqua regia, also known as nitro hydrochloric acid is a fuming, volatile liquid that is made by mixing three parts concentrated hydrochloric acid with one part concentrated nitric acid. Aqua regia is prepared in a laboratory with three parts of precipitated nitrous acid and one part of marine acid; and to hasten the dissolution, the mattress should be placed in a sand bath.
Aqua regia also called royal water consists of a mixture of one part nitric acid and three parts hydrochloric acid. The name aqua regia denotes the ability of this mixture to dissolve precious metals such as gold. Nitric acid is historically used in the production of explosives after the Second World War. Nitric acid production grew rapidly with the expanding use of synthetic fertilizers. Nitric acid is a strong oxidizing agent. Unless used under controlled conditions, it completely oxidizes the organic compound into carbon dioxide and water.
What is Hydrochloric Acid used for?
Cells in the linings of our stomachs produce hydrochloric acid. This is a powerful acid. If a piece of zinc was dropped into hydrochloric acid of the concentration which the stomach contains, it would dissolve. In the stomach hydrochloric acid works to kill bacteria, which are present in foods and to soften foods.
Solutions of acids can be dilute solutions or concentrated solutions. A dilute solution contains a small amount of acid per liter of solution. A concentrated solution contains a large amount of acid per liter of solution. Solutions of acids are always called, say dilute hydrochloric acid or concentrated hydrochloric acid.
Importance of Nitric acid
Nitric acid is one of the most important acids used in chemical analysis: nor is it of inferior consequence when considered in a political or commercial view, as it forms one of the most essential ingredients of gunpowder. Concentrated nitric acid takes part in the same type of reactions as dilute nitric acid and also acts as an oxidizing agent. It is an even more powerful oxidizing agent than concentrated acid.
Nitric acid is also known as aqua fortis or azotic acid which is a strong acid of major importance. When heated or exposed to light the acid decomposes to nitrogen dioxide, coloring it yellow. Nitric acid is mainly traded as commercial grade with concentration ranging from 50 to 65wt% and fuming acid. Nitric acid is mainly applied in the manufacture of ammonium nitrate, used in fertilizers but it is also employed as a powerful oxidizing agent in the production of many chemicals.