The circuit boards of peripheral devices are commonly made up of electrical and electronic components. These components are divided into two categories- active components and passive components. Active components are those that generate and manage energy. Passive components respond to electricity and are capable of dissipating or storing it. They are found in a large variety of peripheral devices, such as hard disks and motherboards. with 48V Motor volt, and digital signal processing. They are also used in the power supply, communications, telecom systems and industrial automation.

In this article, you’ll find a brief explanation of different types of electrical components and devices.

Different electric devices

1. Circuit Breakers

Circuit Breakers

Circuit breakers are electrical switches that automatically shut off a circuit when overloaded or when a short circuit occurs. This device detects fault conditions and, by interrupting continuity, immediately stops the electrical flow. When a fuse is blown, it must then be replaced, but circuit breakers can be reset (automatically or manually) to resume normal operation. Liyond is one of the best circuit breaker suppliers all over the world.

2. Resistor

Resistors are electrical components that prevent current from flowing in circuits.  You can also use a resistor to set a specific voltage for a transistor. A resistor degenerates electrical energy into heat by absorbing the energy that flows through it. Temperature and light sensors, trimmers, varistors, potentiometers, hamsters, and thermistors can have variable and fixed resistances. The voltage across the resistor terminals directly depends on the current flow through the resistor.

3. Capacitor

The capacitor is made of two parallel conductive plates separated by an insulator. Capacitors have two terminals. Capacitors are electrical devices that store energy when they are forced to receive an electric charge from a power source. The battery maintains its charge even after being disconnected from the power source. Capacitors are used in timing circuits along with resistors and can also be used as filters to let in AC signals but block DC signals.

4. Magnetic Starters

A magnetic starter is an electromagnetic switch used to start large electric motors safely. Additionally, magnetic starters are designed to protect against under-voltage and overload, as well as an automatic cut-off during an outage.

5. Panel Boards

Electric panelboards provide a means of dividing an electrical power source into associated circuits, as well as securing fuses or circuit breakers for individual circuits within the same enclosure. A Residual Current Device (RCD) or even a Residual Current Breaker with Overcurrent Protection (RCBO) is usually integrated into the main switch in the latest boards.

6. Contactors

Contactors are electrical switches that are used to switch current circuits, similarly to relays but with higher current ratings. Contactors are controlled by circuits with lower power levels than switched circuits. Liyond is one of the best brands that produce top-quality vacuum contactors.

7. Microcontroller

In a microcontroller, all the functions that are found in a microprocessor are combined into a single integrated circuit. There are many on-chip amenities such as timers, I/O ports, RAM, ROM, interrupts, clock circuits, and serial ports on this chip in order to serve different applications. Embedded systems are used in a variety of devices that are automatically controlled, including medical devices, remote controls, power tools, toys, office machines, automobile engine controls, and other embedded systems.

8. Relays

Relays are switches that are operated by electricity. Relays often operate mechanically with an electromagnet, but they can also operate with other principles. Relays are used to control a circuit by a lower-power signal (completely electrically isolated from control circuits) or to control several circuits with the same signal.

9. Transformer

An electrical transformer consists of two coils of wire, which are linked by an iron core. It provides a convenient way to change the voltage and current levels quickly and easily. In general, the transformer increases (step-ups) and decreases (step-downs) the AC voltage.

Transformers work on the principle of Faraday’s law, which states that mutual inductance occurs when two circuits are connected by an electromagnetic flux. The transformer converts electrical energy between circuits through mutual induction between the two windings without using electrical connections. It also converts power without altering the frequency between circuits on the basis of a different voltage level.

10. Switches

The term switch refers to an electrical component that can interrupt or divert current from one conductor to another, breaking an electrical circuit. These are commonly found in compressor and pump systems.

11. Battery


In an electrical battery, chemical energy is converted to electrical energy by electrochemical discharge reactions. A battery consists of one or more cells, where each cell has its own anode (+), cathode (-), and electrolyte. Electrical circuits keep the anode and cathode connected. Based on the nature of their materials, batteries are classified into two main types. The primary battery cannot be recharged, while the secondary battery is rechargeable.

12. Transistors

Transistors are electronic components made of semiconductor material. They regulate current and voltage flows, as well as act as electronic switches. A transistor can be either NPN or PNP, but most circuits use NPN transistors. The transistor comes in different shapes and has three terminals: base (B), emitter (E), and collector (C). Base terminals activate transistors, emitter terminals are negative leads, and collector terminals are positive leads.

13. Diode/LED (Light Emitting Diode)

Diodes are devices that are made from semiconductor materials and allow current to flow in a single direction; they block the current flow in the opposite direction. They are commonly found in many electronic circuits converting AC to DC. LEDs (Light Emitting Diodes) are an alternative to diodes. A LED emits light at a specific frequency when it is energized by the current. Keyboards, hard disks, and TV remote controls use LEDs as status indicators.

14. Generator

Generators convert mechanical energy into electricity. By forcing current to flow through a circuit, a generator generates electricity. The vast majority of electric power comes from generators.

15. Motors

The motor is a piece of electrical equipment that converts electrical energy to mechanical energy. Electrical motors are found in everything from household appliances to computer systems. In comparison with pneumatic or hydraulic alternatives, these motors are capable of handling the tasks. Motors are categorized into various types such as DC motors, AC inductance motors, brushless permanent magnet synchronous motors, stepper motors, and switched reluctance motors, and brushed DC motors.


The following components are some of the basic electricity and electronics components used in various electrical and electronic projects. We hope this article has helped you understand and gave you a good idea about electrical components.

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